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MammalBase - Accepted taxon: Odocoileus virginianus

Accepted taxon: Odocoileus virginianus


Accepted taxon: Odocoileus virginianus
Taxon: Odocoileus virginianus
Rank: Species
Higher Classification: ARTIODACTYLA | Cervidae | Capreolinae | Odocoileus
Reference: Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), JHU Press, 2005.

Fig.1 - Ternary plot of the proximate analysis for the Odocoileus virginianus diet.
CF (Crude Fibre) 21, ASH (Ash contents) 7, NFE (Nitrogen-Free-Extract) 55, CP (Crude Protein) 11, EE (Ether Extract) 5. See details for the calculations in Lintulaakso, K., Tatti, N. and Žliobaitė, I., 2022. Quantifying mammalian diets. Mammalian Biology, pp.1-15. [DOI]


Table 1. List of Diet Items for Odocoileus virginianus.
TSN Complete name Part Ratio a. Reference(s)
Magnoliopsida LEAF 28.57 Damuth, J…
Magnoliopsida STEM 21.77 Damuth, J…
Fungi SHOOT 11.02 Damuth, J…
Fagaceae SEED 8.16 Damuth, J…
Poaceae STEM 8.16 Damuth, J…
Magnoliopsida SHOOT 6.80 Damuth, J…
Rubus FRUIT 1.90 Grzimek,B…
Cornus STEM 1.77 Grzimek,B…
Symphoricarpos FRUIT 1.63 Grzimek,B…
Prunus virginiana FRUIT 1.50 Grzimek,B…
Rosa SHOOT 1.36 Grzimek,B…
Lilianae STEM 1.36 Grzimek,B…
Mahonia repens FRUIT 1.22 Grzimek,B…
Pinus ponderosa STEM 1.09 Grzimek,B…
Ulmus LEAF 0.95 Grzimek,B…
Acer SHOOT 0.82 Grzimek,B…
Quercus SEED 0.68 Grzimek,B…
Carya SEED 0.54 Grzimek,B…
Fagus SEED 0.41 Grzimek,B…
Juglans SEED 0.27 Grzimek,B…

a. Standardized values. See details for the calculations in Lintulaakso, K., Tatti, N. and Žliobaitė, I., 2022. Quantifying mammalian diets. Mammalian Biology, pp.1-15. [DOI]


Table 2. List of Standard Traits for Odocoileus virginianus.
Trait Selected Value All Value(s) Reference(s)
Dietary category: Eisenberg 1981 Herbivore-Browser Herbivore-Browser,Herbivore-Grazer A. Myster…
Dietary category: Miljutin 2009 Herbivore Herbivore A. Myster…
Locomotion: Eisenberg 1981 Terrestrial Terrestrial Paglia,A.…
Temporal habits diurnal diurnal Rodrigo A…

Table 3. List of Standard Measurements for Odocoileus virginianus.
Measurement Location Unit n Total n Unknown n Female n Male Min Mean Max SD Reference(s)
Body Mass (BM) nan g 15 15 - - - 46,992.33 - - Engelman,…
Body Mass (BM) nan g - - - - - 93,460 - - Wimberly,…
Body Mass - Female (BM-F) Brazil g - - - - - 30,000 - - Paglia,A.…
Body Mass - Male (BM-M) Brazil g - - - - - 50,000 - - Paglia,A.…
Head-Body Length (HBL) nan mm 11 11 - - - 1,294.91 - - Engelman,…
Occipital condyle width (OCW) nan mm 15 15 - - - 45.02 - - Engelman,…

Table 4. List of other Measurements b. for Odocoileus virginianus.
Measurement Location Unit n Total n Unknown n Female n Male Min Mean Max SD Reference(s)
Length of the Masseteric Fossa cm 7 7 - - - 11 - - Quibod, M…
Muzzle Width cm 7 7 - - - 3 - - Quibod, M…
Total Length of the Skull cm 7 7 - - - 27 - - Quibod, M…
brainmass nan g - - - - - 210 - - Engelman,…
skull_length nan mm - - - - - 252 - - Engelman,…
A1-MLL (maximum lateral length of the astragalus) nan mm 4 4 - - 34 38 41 3 Wimberly,…
A2-MML (maximum medial length of the astragalus) nan mm 4 4 - - 31 35 37 3 Wimberly,…
A3-MIN (minimal length of the astragalus) nan mm 4 4 - - 27 30 33 3 Wimberly,…
A4-WAT (width at tarsus of the astragalus) nan mm 4 4 - - 21 24 26 2 Wimberly,…
A5-WAF (width at trochlea of the astragalus) nan mm 4 4 - - 19 21 25 3 Wimberly,…
C1-UL (greatest length of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 73 85 91 8 Wimberly,…
C2-TL (length of body of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 48 59 64 7 Wimberly,…
C3-MBH (midbody height of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 18 22 23 2 Wimberly,…
C4-MBTV (midbody transverse width of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 10 11 12 1 Wimberly,…
C5-FFL (fibular facet length of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 15 17 18 1 Wimberly,…
C6-CNFL (cubonavicular facet length of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 19 19 20 0 Wimberly,…
C7-HSF (height of sustentacular facet of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 14 16 17 1 Wimberly,…
C8-HST (height of sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 20 24 26 3 Wimberly,…
F1-UL (full length of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 199 240 260 28 Wimberly,…
F2-FL (functional length of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 188 230 250 29 Wimberly,…
F3-MCF (midshaft circumference of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 57 65 70 6 Wimberly,…
F4-PW (proximal width of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 52 56 60 3 Wimberly,…
F5-MLHW (mediolateral femoral head of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 27 32 36 4 Wimberly,…
F6-APHW (anteroposterior femoral head of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 21 24 26 2 Wimberly,…
F7-DW (distal width of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 44 51 55 5 Wimberly,…
F8-MPL (medial condyle and patellar lip of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 58 65 70 6 Wimberly,…
F9-LPL (lateral condyle and patellar lip of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 48 55 58 5 Wimberly,…
H1-UL (full length of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 160 195 209 23 Wimberly,…
H2-FL (functional length of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 147 180 195 23 Wimberly,…
H3-MCF (midshaft circumference of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 55 66 71 7 Wimberly,…
H4-MTH (largest medial height of trochlea of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 24 28 31 3 Wimberly,…
H5-MidTH (smallest height of trochlea of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 18 21 22 2 Wimberly,…
H6-LTH (largest lateral height of trochlea of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 21 23 25 2 Wimberly,…
H7-PW (proximal width of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 41 47 51 4 Wimberly,…
H8-MLH (mediolateral humeral head width of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 34 38 43 4 Wimberly,…
H9-DW (distal width of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 35 39 41 3 Wimberly,…
MC1-UL (length of the metacarpus) nan mm 4 4 - - 162 198 219 26 Wimberly,…
MC2-MAP (anteroposterior midshaft of the metacarpus) nan mm 4 4 - - 13 17 19 2 Wimberly,…
MC3-MML (mediolateral midshaft of the metacarpus) nan mm 4 4 - - 14 16 18 2 Wimberly,…
MC4-DW (distal width of the metacarpus) nan mm 4 4 - - 25 29 31 3 Wimberly,…
MC5-PW (proximal width of the metacarpus) nan mm 4 4 - - 26 29 30 2 Wimberly,…
MT1-UL (length of the metatarsus) nan mm 4 4 - - 193 227 245 23 Wimberly,…
MT2-MAP (anteroposterior midshaft of the metatarsus) nan mm 4 4 - - 16 19 21 2 Wimberly,…
MT3-MML (mediolateral midshaft of the metatarsus) nan mm 4 4 - - 14 16 17 1 Wimberly,…
MT4-DW (distal width of the metatarsus) nan mm 4 4 - - 25 30 32 3 Wimberly,…
MT5-PW (proximal width of the metatarsus) nan mm 4 4 - - 25 27 29 2 Wimberly,…
R1-UL (length of the radius) nan mm 4 4 - - 167 202 216 24 Wimberly,…
R2-PW (full proximal width of the radius) nan mm 4 4 - - 33 36 38 2 Wimberly,…
R3-NPW (width of humeral articular surface of the radius) nan mm 4 4 - - 29 33 35 3 Wimberly,…
R4-DW (distal width of the radius) nan mm 4 4 - - 28 33 36 4 Wimberly,…
S1-L (full length of the scapula) nan mm 4 4 - - 155 188 207 23 Wimberly,…
S2-GW (greatest cranio-caudal length of the scapula) nan mm 4 4 - - 100 117 127 12 Wimberly,…
S3-SW (shortest length of scapular neck of the scapula) nan mm 4 4 - - 20 22 24 2 Wimberly,…
S4-GH (anteroposterior glenoid fossa of the scapula) nan mm 4 4 - - 25 31 33 4 Wimberly,…
S5-GW (mediolateral glenoid fossa of the scapula) nan mm 4 4 - - 25 29 32 3 Wimberly,…
T1-L (full length of the tibia) nan mm 4 4 - - 228 270 287 28 Wimberly,…
T2-MCF (midshaft circumference of the tibia) nan mm 4 4 - - 56 65 70 6 Wimberly,…
T3-PW (proximal width of the tibia) nan mm 4 4 - - 48 53 57 4 Wimberly,…
T4-DW (distal width of the tibia) nan mm 4 4 - - 30 35 36 3 Wimberly,…
U1-UL (length of the ulna) nan mm 4 4 - - 208 255 272 31 Wimberly,…
U2-OPL (olecranon process length of the ulna) nan mm 4 4 - - 43 50 57 6 Wimberly,…
average ungulate dietary grass fraction (proportional) nan unitless - - - - - 0 - - Abraham, …
BMR (kJ/h) nan kJ/h - - - - - 339 - - McNab, B.…
femur circumference nan mm - - - - - 62 - - Nelson, A…
femur diameter nan mm - - - - - 20 - - Nelson, A…
humerus circumference nan mm - - - - - 57 - - Nelson, A…
humerus diameter nan mm - - - - - 21 - - Nelson, A…
neck length nan mm - - - - - 320 - - Nelson, A…
BMR,mlO2/h nan mlO2/h 4 4 - - - 11,481 - - Genoud, M…

b. other Measurements. Source Measurements which are not listed on or mapped with the Standard Traits..


Table 5. List of Data Sources for Odocoileus virginianus.
Taxon Reference Match Status
Odocoileus virginianus Mysterud,Atle, 2000, The Relationship between Ecological Segregation and Sexual Body Size Dimorphism in Large Herbivores, Oecologia 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Odocoileus virginianus Clauss,M., 2010, Convergence in the macroscopic anatomy of the reticulum in wild ruminant species of different feeding types and a new resulting hypothesis on reticular function, Journal of zoology 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Odocoileus virginianus Loison,A., 1999, What factors shape sexual size dimorphism in ungulates?, Evolutionary Ecology Research 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Odocoileus virginianus Robinson,John G., 1986, Body Size, Diet, and Population Density of Neotropical Forest Mammals, The American Naturalist 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Odocoileus virginianus Clauss,M., 2002, Faecal particle size distribution in captive wild ruminants: an approach to the browser/grazer dichotomy from the other end, Oecologia 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Odocoileus virginianus Mendoza,M., 2008, Hypsodonty in ungulates: an adaptation for grass consumption or for foraging in open habitat?, Journal of zoology 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Odocoileus virginianus Nowak,R. M., 1991, Walker's mammals of the world, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Odocoileus virginianus McNab,B. K., 1986, The influence of food habits on the energetics of eutherian mammals, Ecological Monographs 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Odocoileus virginianus Paglia,A. P., 2012, Lista Anotada dos Mamíferos do Brasil 2ª Edição Annotated Checklist of Brazilian Mammals, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Odocoileus virginianus Medellín,R. A., 1994, Mammal diversity and conservation in the Selva Lacandona, Chiapas, Mexico, Conservation Biology 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Odocoileus virginianus Damuth, J. 2010. ABSOLUT 6 a mammalian database compiled by the national center for ecological analysis and synthesis (NCEAS ) workshop on mammalian communities. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Odocoileus virginianus Reid,F., 2006, Peterson field guide to mammals of North America, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Odocoileus virginianus Grzimek,B., 2003, Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia: Mammals I-V, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Odocoileus virginianus Quibod, M.N.R.M., Gélin, U., van Langevelde, F. and Tomlinson, K.W., 2023. Diet-specific responses of skull traits to aridity gradients in bovids and cervids. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, p.zlad068. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Odocoileus virginianus Engelman, R.K., 2022. Occipital condyle width (OCW) is a highly accurate predictor of body mass in therian mammals. BMC biology, 20(1), p.37. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Odocoileus virginianus Wimberly, A.N., 2023. Predicting body mass in Ruminantia using postcranial measurements. Journal of Morphology, 284(10), p.e21636. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Odocoileus virginianus Abraham, J.O., Upham, N.S., Damian-Serrano, A. and Jesmer, B.R., 2022. Evolutionary causes and consequences of ungulate migration. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 6(7), pp.998-1006. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Odocoileus virginianus Lundgren, E.J., Schowanek, S.D., Rowan, J., Middleton, O., Pedersen, R.Ø., Wallach, A.D., Ramp, D., Davis, M., Sandom, C.J. and Svenning, J.C., 2021. Functional traits of the world’s late Quaternary large-bodied avian and mammalian herbivores. Scientific data, 8(1), p.17. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Odocoileus virginianus McNab, B.K., 2008. An analysis of the factors that influence the level and scaling of mammalian BMR. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 151(1), pp.5-28. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Odocoileus virginianus Nelson, A., Engelman, R.K. and Croft, D.A., 2023. How to weigh a fossil mammal? South American notoungulates as a case study for estimating body mass in extinct clades. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 30(3), pp.773-809. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Odocoileus virginianus Genoud, M., Isler, K. and Martin, R.D., 2018. Comparative analyses of basal rate of metabolism in mammals: data selection does matter. Biological Reviews, 93(1), pp.404-438. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted

Citation for this page: [The MammalBase community 2024. / CC BY 4.0. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7462864 Odocoileus virginianus , Accessed 22nd July 2024 at https://mammalbase.net/me/15624]