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MammalBase - Accepted taxon: Elephas maximus

Accepted taxon: Elephas maximus


Accepted taxon: Elephas maximus
Taxon: Elephas maximus
Rank: Species
Higher Classification: PROBOSCIDEA | Elephantidae | Elephas
Reference: Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), JHU Press, 2005.

Fig.1 - Ternary plot of the proximate analysis for the Elephas maximus diet.
CF (Crude Fibre) 20, ASH (Ash contents) 7, NFE (Nitrogen-Free-Extract) 36, CP (Crude Protein) 8, EE (Ether Extract) 2. See details for the calculations in Lintulaakso, K., Tatti, N. and Žliobaitė, I., 2022. Quantifying mammalian diets. Mammalian Biology, pp.1-15. [DOI]


Table 1. List of Diet Items for Elephas maximus.
TSN Complete name Part Ratio a. Reference(s)
Magnoliopsida SHOOT 29.63 Grzimek,B…
Poaceae STEM 25.93 Grzimek,B…
Magnoliopsida BARK 6.48 Nowak,R. …
Arecaceae SHOOT 6.48 Smith,A. …
Magnoliopsida ROOT 5.56 Nowak,R. …
Magnoliopsida LEAF 4.63 Nowak,R. …
Oryza sativa SEED 4.63 Smith,A. …
Saccharum officinarum STEM 4.63 Nowak,R. …
Magnoliopsida STEM 3.70 Nowak,R. …
Musa FRUIT 2.78 Smith,A. …
Musa acuminata FRUIT 2.78 Nowak,R. …
Carica papaya FRUIT 1.85 Smith,A. …
0 MINERAL 0.93 Smith,A. …

a. Standardized values. See details for the calculations in Lintulaakso, K., Tatti, N. and Žliobaitė, I., 2022. Quantifying mammalian diets. Mammalian Biology, pp.1-15. [DOI]


Table 2. List of Standard Traits for Elephas maximus.
Trait Selected Value All Value(s) Reference(s)
Dietary category: Eisenberg 1981 Frugivore-Herbivore Frugivore-Herbivore,Herbivore-Mixed feeder A. Myster…
Dietary category: Miljutin 2009 Frugivore Frugivore,Herbivore A. Myster…

Table 3. List of Standard Measurements for Elephas maximus.
Measurement Location Unit n Total n Unknown n Female n Male Min Mean Max SD Reference(s)
Body Mass (BM) nan g - - - - - 3,160,000 - - Lundgren,…
Body Mass (BM) nan g - - - - 1,810,000 - 5,400,000 - Freudenth…

Table 4. List of other Measurements b. for Elephas maximus.
Measurement Location Unit n Total n Unknown n Female n Male Min Mean Max SD Reference(s)
femur circumference nan mm - - - - - 286 - - Nelson, A…
femur diameter nan mm - - - - - 97 - - Nelson, A…
humerus circumference nan mm - - - - - 282 - - Nelson, A…
neck length nan mm - - - - - 371 - - Nelson, A…

b. other Measurements. Source Measurements which are not listed on or mapped with the Standard Traits..


Table 5. List of Data Sources for Elephas maximus.
Taxon Reference Match Status
Elephas maximus Mysterud,Atle, 2000, The Relationship between Ecological Segregation and Sexual Body Size Dimorphism in Large Herbivores, Oecologia 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Elephas maximus Sukumar,R., 1995, Elephant foraging: Is browse or grass more important, A week with elephants 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Elephas maximus Nowak,R. M., 1991, Walker's mammals of the world, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Elephas maximus Grzimek,B., 2003, Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia: Mammals I-V, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Elephas maximus Smith,A. T., 2010, A guide to the mammals of China, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Elephas maximus Nowak,R. M., 1991, Walker's mammals of the world, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Elephas maximus Lundgren, E.J., Schowanek, S.D., Rowan, J., Middleton, O., Pedersen, R.Ø., Wallach, A.D., Ramp, D., Davis, M., Sandom, C.J. and Svenning, J.C., 2021. Functional traits of the world’s late Quaternary large-bodied avian and mammalian herbivores. Scientific data, 8(1), p.17. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Elephas maximus Nelson, A., Engelman, R.K. and Croft, D.A., 2023. How to weigh a fossil mammal? South American notoungulates as a case study for estimating body mass in extinct clades. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 30(3), pp.773-809. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Elephas maximus Freudenthal, M. and Martín-Suárez, E., 2013. Estimating body mass of fossil rodents. Scripta Geologica, 145, pp.1-513. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted

Citation for this page: [The MammalBase community 2024. / CC BY 4.0. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7462864 Elephas maximus , Accessed 22nd July 2024 at https://mammalbase.net/me/5378]