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MammalBase - Accepted taxon: Bison bison

Accepted taxon: Bison bison


Accepted taxon: Bison bison
Taxon: Bison bison
Rank: Species
Higher Classification: ARTIODACTYLA | Bovidae | Bovinae | Bison
Reference: Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), JHU Press, 2005.

Fig.1 - Ternary plot of the proximate analysis for the Bison bison diet.
CF (Crude Fibre) 30, ASH (Ash contents) 9, NFE (Nitrogen-Free-Extract) 47, CP (Crude Protein) 12, EE (Ether Extract) 2. See details for the calculations in Lintulaakso, K., Tatti, N. and Žliobaitė, I., 2022. Quantifying mammalian diets. Mammalian Biology, pp.1-15. [DOI]


Table 1. List of Diet Items for Bison bison.
TSN Complete name Part Ratio a. Reference(s)
Poaceae STEM 76.67 Damuth, J…
Magnoliopsida SHOOT 15.83 Grzimek,B…
Cyperaceae LEAF 7.50 Grzimek,B…

a. Standardized values. See details for the calculations in Lintulaakso, K., Tatti, N. and Žliobaitė, I., 2022. Quantifying mammalian diets. Mammalian Biology, pp.1-15. [DOI]


Table 2. List of Standard Traits for Bison bison.
Trait Selected Value All Value(s) Reference(s)
Dietary category: Eisenberg 1981 Herbivore-Grazer Herbivore-Grazer,Herbivore-Mixed feeder A. Myster…
Dietary category: Miljutin 2009 Herbivore Herbivore A. Myster…

Table 3. List of Standard Measurements for Bison bison.
Measurement Location Unit n Total n Unknown n Female n Male Min Mean Max SD Reference(s)
Body Mass (BM) nan g - - - - - 627,290 - - Wimberly,…
Body Mass (BM) nan g - - - - 318,000 - 1,000,000 - Freudenth…

Table 4. List of other Measurements b. for Bison bison.
Measurement Location Unit n Total n Unknown n Female n Male Min Mean Max SD Reference(s)
Length of the Masseteric Fossa cm 9 9 - - - 25 - - Quibod, M…
Muzzle Width cm 9 9 - - - 10 - - Quibod, M…
Total Length of the Skull cm 9 9 - - - 48 - - Quibod, M…
A1-MLL (maximum lateral length of the astragalus) nan mm 5 5 - - 72 75 80 3 Wimberly,…
A2-MML (maximum medial length of the astragalus) nan mm 5 5 - - 69 71 75 3 Wimberly,…
A3-MIN (minimal length of the astragalus) nan mm 5 5 - - 56 59 63 3 Wimberly,…
A4-WAT (width at tarsus of the astragalus) nan mm 5 5 - - 47 51 55 4 Wimberly,…
A5-WAF (width at trochlea of the astragalus) nan mm 5 5 - - 46 46 48 1 Wimberly,…
C1-UL (greatest length of the calcaneus) nan mm 5 5 - - 144 154 165 10 Wimberly,…
C2-TL (length of body of the calcaneus) nan mm 5 5 - - 94 100 107 6 Wimberly,…
C3-MBH (midbody height of the calcaneus) nan mm 5 5 - - 38 42 46 3 Wimberly,…
C4-MBTV (midbody transverse width of the calcaneus) nan mm 5 5 - - 19 22 25 2 Wimberly,…
C5-FFL (fibular facet length of the calcaneus) nan mm 5 5 - - 31 35 38 3 Wimberly,…
C6-CNFL (cubonavicular facet length of the calcaneus) nan mm 5 5 - - 37 42 45 4 Wimberly,…
C7-HSF (height of sustentacular facet of the calcaneus) nan mm 5 5 - - 32 34 38 2 Wimberly,…
C8-HST (height of sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus) nan mm 5 5 - - 50 53 58 3 Wimberly,…
F1-UL (full length of the femur) nan mm 5 5 - - 370 406 445 33 Wimberly,…
F2-FL (functional length of the femur) nan mm 5 5 - - 353 388 421 32 Wimberly,…
F3-MCF (midshaft circumference of the femur) nan mm 5 5 - - 128 145 164 15 Wimberly,…
F4-PW (proximal width of the femur) nan mm 5 5 - - 125 139 155 12 Wimberly,…
F5-MLHW (mediolateral femoral head of the femur) nan mm 5 5 - - 70 76 84 6 Wimberly,…
F6-APHW (anteroposterior femoral head of the femur) nan mm 5 5 - - 52 56 59 3 Wimberly,…
F7-DW (distal width of the femur) nan mm 5 5 - - 99 108 118 8 Wimberly,…
F8-MPL (medial condyle and patellar lip of the femur) nan mm 5 5 - - 131 140 150 9 Wimberly,…
F9-LPL (lateral condyle and patellar lip of the femur) nan mm 5 5 - - 104 109 115 5 Wimberly,…
H1-UL (full length of the humerus) nan mm 5 5 - - 311 345 379 30 Wimberly,…
H2-FL (functional length of the humerus) nan mm 5 5 - - 280 309 340 26 Wimberly,…
H3-MCF (midshaft circumference of the humerus) nan mm 5 5 - - 145 175 205 26 Wimberly,…
H4-MTH (largest medial height of trochlea of the humerus) nan mm 5 5 - - 50 55 63 6 Wimberly,…
H5-MidTH (smallest height of trochlea of the humerus) nan mm 5 5 - - 39 42 45 2 Wimberly,…
H6-LTH (largest lateral height of trochlea of the humerus) nan mm 5 5 - - 45 47 49 2 Wimberly,…
H7-PW (proximal width of the humerus) nan mm 5 5 - - 99 114 129 13 Wimberly,…
H8-MLH (mediolateral humeral head width of the humerus) nan mm 5 5 - - 69 76 81 7 Wimberly,…
H9-DW (distal width of the humerus) nan mm 5 5 - - 77 92 103 11 Wimberly,…
MC1-UL (length of the metacarpus) nan mm 5 5 - - 185 192 198 6 Wimberly,…
MC2-MAP (anteroposterior midshaft of the metacarpus) nan mm 5 5 - - 25 28 31 3 Wimberly,…
MC3-MML (mediolateral midshaft of the metacarpus) nan mm 5 5 - - 36 42 49 6 Wimberly,…
MC4-DW (distal width of the metacarpus) nan mm 5 5 - - 63 69 75 6 Wimberly,…
MC5-PW (proximal width of the metacarpus) nan mm 5 5 - - 61 69 74 5 Wimberly,…
MT1-UL (length of the metatarsus) nan mm 5 5 - - 224 238 253 13 Wimberly,…
MT2-MAP (anteroposterior midshaft of the metatarsus) nan mm 5 5 - - 29 33 37 4 Wimberly,…
MT3-MML (mediolateral midshaft of the metatarsus) nan mm 5 5 - - 30 34 40 5 Wimberly,…
MT4-DW (distal width of the metatarsus) nan mm 5 5 - - 59 64 70 5 Wimberly,…
MT5-PW (proximal width of the metatarsus) nan mm 5 5 - - 50 56 63 5 Wimberly,…
R1-UL (length of the radius) nan mm 5 5 - - 282 309 340 25 Wimberly,…
R2-PW (full proximal width of the radius) nan mm 5 5 - - 84 93 103 8 Wimberly,…
R3-NPW (width of humeral articular surface of the radius) nan mm 5 5 - - 77 86 94 7 Wimberly,…
R4-DW (distal width of the radius) nan mm 5 5 - - 74 84 93 8 Wimberly,…
S1-L (full length of the scapula) nan mm 5 5 - - 397 460 513 58 Wimberly,…
S2-GW (greatest cranio-caudal length of the scapula) nan mm 5 5 - - 204 238 267 31 Wimberly,…
S3-SW (shortest length of scapular neck of the scapula) nan mm 5 5 - - 56 67 81 10 Wimberly,…
S4-GH (anteroposterior glenoid fossa of the scapula) nan mm 5 5 - - 60 68 77 7 Wimberly,…
S5-GW (mediolateral glenoid fossa of the scapula) nan mm 5 5 - - 48 57 64 7 Wimberly,…
T1-L (full length of the tibia) nan mm 5 5 - - 339 369 401 30 Wimberly,…
T2-MCF (midshaft circumference of the tibia) nan mm 5 5 - - 127 143 162 15 Wimberly,…
T3-PW (proximal width of the tibia) nan mm 5 5 - - 105 114 123 8 Wimberly,…
T4-DW (distal width of the tibia) nan mm 5 5 - - 67 71 78 4 Wimberly,…
U1-UL (length of the ulna) nan mm 5 5 - - 361 404 447 40 Wimberly,…
U2-OPL (olecranon process length of the ulna) nan mm 5 5 - - 96 115 130 16 Wimberly,…
average ungulate dietary grass fraction (proportional) nan unitless - - - - - 1 - - Abraham, …
femur circumference nan mm - - - - - 158 - - Nelson, A…
femur diameter nan mm - - - - - 43 - - Nelson, A…
humerus circumference nan mm - - - - - 172 - - Nelson, A…
humerus diameter nan mm - - - - - 48 - - Nelson, A…
neck length nan mm - - - - - 471 - - Nelson, A…

b. other Measurements. Source Measurements which are not listed on or mapped with the Standard Traits..


Table 5. List of Data Sources for Bison bison.
Taxon Reference Match Status
Bison bison Mysterud,Atle, 2000, The Relationship between Ecological Segregation and Sexual Body Size Dimorphism in Large Herbivores, Oecologia 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Bison bison Clauss,M., 2002, Faecal particle size distribution in captive wild ruminants: an approach to the browser/grazer dichotomy from the other end, Oecologia 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Bison bison Clauss,M., 2010, Convergence in the macroscopic anatomy of the reticulum in wild ruminant species of different feeding types and a new resulting hypothesis on reticular function, Journal of zoology 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Bison bison Gordon,IJ, 1988, Incisor arcade structure and diet selection in ruminants, Functional Ecology 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Bison bison Loison,A., 1999, What factors shape sexual size dimorphism in ungulates?, Evolutionary Ecology Research 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Bison bison Mendoza,M., 2008, Hypsodonty in ungulates: an adaptation for grass consumption or for foraging in open habitat?, Journal of zoology 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Bison bison Damuth, J. 2010. ABSOLUT 6 a mammalian database compiled by the national center for ecological analysis and synthesis (NCEAS ) workshop on mammalian communities. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Bison bison Reid,F., 2006, Peterson field guide to mammals of North America, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Bison bison Nowak,R. M., 1991, Walker's mammals of the world, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Bison bison Grzimek,B., 2003, Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia: Mammals I-V, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Bison bison Quibod, M.N.R.M., Gélin, U., van Langevelde, F. and Tomlinson, K.W., 2023. Diet-specific responses of skull traits to aridity gradients in bovids and cervids. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, p.zlad068. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Bison bison DeMers, A.C., 2023. Functional Significance of the Mandible, Tooth Roots, and Tooth Crowns, and their Implications for Fossil Dietary Inference (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University). 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Bison bison Wimberly, A.N., 2023. Predicting body mass in Ruminantia using postcranial measurements. Journal of Morphology, 284(10), p.e21636. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Bison bison Abraham, J.O., Upham, N.S., Damian-Serrano, A. and Jesmer, B.R., 2022. Evolutionary causes and consequences of ungulate migration. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 6(7), pp.998-1006. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Bison bison Lundgren, E.J., Schowanek, S.D., Rowan, J., Middleton, O., Pedersen, R.Ø., Wallach, A.D., Ramp, D., Davis, M., Sandom, C.J. and Svenning, J.C., 2021. Functional traits of the world’s late Quaternary large-bodied avian and mammalian herbivores. Scientific data, 8(1), p.17. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Bison bison Nelson, A., Engelman, R.K. and Croft, D.A., 2023. How to weigh a fossil mammal? South American notoungulates as a case study for estimating body mass in extinct clades. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 30(3), pp.773-809. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Bison bison Freudenthal, M. and Martín-Suárez, E., 2013. Estimating body mass of fossil rodents. Scripta Geologica, 145, pp.1-513. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted

Citation for this page: [The MammalBase community 2024. / CC BY 4.0. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7462864 Bison bison , Accessed 22nd July 2024 at https://mammalbase.net/me/15969]