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MammalBase - Accepted taxon: Cervus nippon

Accepted taxon: Cervus nippon


Accepted taxon: Cervus nippon
Taxon: Cervus nippon
Rank: Species
Higher Classification: ARTIODACTYLA | Cervidae | Cervinae | Cervus
Reference: Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), JHU Press, 2005.

Fig.1 - Ternary plot of the proximate analysis for the Cervus nippon diet.
CF (Crude Fibre) 25, ASH (Ash contents) 8, NFE (Nitrogen-Free-Extract) 51, CP (Crude Protein) 12, EE (Ether Extract) 3. See details for the calculations in Lintulaakso, K., Tatti, N. and Žliobaitė, I., 2022. Quantifying mammalian diets. Mammalian Biology, pp.1-15. [DOI]


Table 1. List of Diet Items for Cervus nippon.
TSN Complete name Part Ratio a. Reference(s)
Poaceae STEM 36.36 Nowak,R. …
Magnoliopsida SHOOT 24.24 Grzimek,B…
Magnoliopsida LEAF 19.05 Grzimek,B…
Magnoliopsida FRUIT 6.06 Smith,A. …
Fungi SHOOT 6.06 Grzimek,B…
Magnoliopsida STEM 4.76 Grzimek,B…
Magnoliopsida BARK 1.73 Grzimek,B…
Magnoliopsida BUD 1.30 Grzimek,B…
Fagaceae SEED 0.43 Grzimek,B…

a. Standardized values. See details for the calculations in Lintulaakso, K., Tatti, N. and Žliobaitė, I., 2022. Quantifying mammalian diets. Mammalian Biology, pp.1-15. [DOI]


Table 2. List of Standard Traits for Cervus nippon.
Trait Selected Value All Value(s) Reference(s)
Dietary category: Eisenberg 1981 Herbivore-Mixed feeder Herbivore-Mixed feeder A. Myster…
Dietary category: Miljutin 2009 Herbivore Herbivore A. Myster…

Table 3. List of Standard Measurements for Cervus nippon.
Measurement Location Unit n Total n Unknown n Female n Male Min Mean Max SD Reference(s)
Body Mass (BM) nan g 5 - - 5 - 70,100 - - Nelson, A…
Body Mass (BM) nan g - - - - 11,800 - 139,000 - Freudenth…
Body Mass (BM) nan g 5 - 5 - - 46,800 - - Nelson, A…
Body Mass (BM) nan g 5 - - 5 - 117,400 - - Nelson, A…
Body Mass (BM) nan g 7 - 7 - - 46,900 - - Nelson, A…
Body Mass (BM) nan g 37 - - 37 - 40,900 - - Nelson, A…
Body Mass (BM) nan g 2 2 - - - 74,950 - - Engelman,…
Body Mass (BM) nan g - - - - - 42,800 - - Wimberly,…
Body Mass (BM) nan g 12 - 12 - - 73,100 - - Nelson, A…
Body Mass (BM) nan g 7 - - 7 - 58,500 - - Nelson, A…
Body Mass (BM) nan g 45 - 45 - - 27,100 - - Nelson, A…
Head-Body Length (HBL) nan mm 5 - - 5 - 1,615 - - Nelson, A…
Head-Body Length (HBL) nan mm 5 - 5 - - 1,388 - - Nelson, A…
Head-Body Length (HBL) nan mm 5 - - 5 - 1,730 - - Nelson, A…
Head-Body Length (HBL) nan mm 7 - 7 - - 1,424 - - Nelson, A…
Head-Body Length (HBL) nan mm 37 - - 37 - 1,321 - - Nelson, A…
Head-Body Length (HBL) nan mm 12 - 12 - - 1,620 - - Nelson, A…
Head-Body Length (HBL) nan mm 7 - - 7 - 1,486 - - Nelson, A…
Head-Body Length (HBL) nan mm - - - - - 1,293.5 - - Engelman,…
Head-Body Length (HBL) nan mm 45 - 45 - - 1,234 - - Nelson, A…
Occipital condyle width (OCW) nan mm 2 2 - - - 49.79 - - Engelman,…

Table 4. List of other Measurements b. for Cervus nippon.
Measurement Location Unit n Total n Unknown n Female n Male Min Mean Max SD Reference(s)
Length of the Masseteric Fossa cm 8 8 - - - 11 - - Quibod, M…
Muzzle Width cm 8 8 - - - 3 - - Quibod, M…
Total Length of the Skull cm 8 8 - - - 23 - - Quibod, M…
brainmass nan g - - - - - 201 - - Engelman,…
skull_length nan mm - - - - - 230 - - Engelman,…
A1-MLL (maximum lateral length of the astragalus) nan mm 4 4 - - 29 30 32 1 Wimberly,…
A2-MML (maximum medial length of the astragalus) nan mm 4 4 - - 27 28 30 1 Wimberly,…
A3-MIN (minimal length of the astragalus) nan mm 4 4 - - 23 24 24 1 Wimberly,…
A4-WAT (width at tarsus of the astragalus) nan mm 4 4 - - 18 19 20 1 Wimberly,…
A5-WAF (width at trochlea of the astragalus) nan mm 4 4 - - 16 17 17 0 Wimberly,…
C1-UL (greatest length of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 66 68 72 3 Wimberly,…
C2-TL (length of body of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 43 45 48 2 Wimberly,…
C3-MBH (midbody height of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 16 17 18 1 Wimberly,…
C4-MBTV (midbody transverse width of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 8 8 9 1 Wimberly,…
C5-FFL (fibular facet length of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 14 15 15 0 Wimberly,…
C6-CNFL (cubonavicular facet length of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 18 18 19 1 Wimberly,…
C7-HSF (height of sustentacular facet of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 12 13 14 0 Wimberly,…
C8-HST (height of sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 20 21 21 0 Wimberly,…
F1-UL (full length of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 186 194 209 10 Wimberly,…
F2-FL (functional length of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 180 187 202 10 Wimberly,…
F3-MCF (midshaft circumference of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 49 52 59 5 Wimberly,…
F4-PW (proximal width of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 44 47 51 3 Wimberly,…
F5-MLHW (mediolateral femoral head of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 26 27 29 1 Wimberly,…
F6-APHW (anteroposterior femoral head of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 19 20 22 1 Wimberly,…
F7-DW (distal width of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 40 41 44 2 Wimberly,…
F8-MPL (medial condyle and patellar lip of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 53 54 58 2 Wimberly,…
F9-LPL (lateral condyle and patellar lip of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 44 45 48 2 Wimberly,…
H1-UL (full length of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 152 160 175 10 Wimberly,…
H2-FL (functional length of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 137 144 156 9 Wimberly,…
H3-MCF (midshaft circumference of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 49 53 60 5 Wimberly,…
H4-MTH (largest medial height of trochlea of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 22 22 24 1 Wimberly,…
H5-MidTH (smallest height of trochlea of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 15 15 16 0 Wimberly,…
H6-LTH (largest lateral height of trochlea of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 17 18 19 1 Wimberly,…
H7-PW (proximal width of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 38 41 44 3 Wimberly,…
H8-MLH (mediolateral humeral head width of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 29 31 34 2 Wimberly,…
H9-DW (distal width of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 30 31 35 3 Wimberly,…
MC1-UL (length of the metacarpus) nan mm 4 4 - - 138 142 149 5 Wimberly,…
MC2-MAP (anteroposterior midshaft of the metacarpus) nan mm 4 4 - - 11 12 13 1 Wimberly,…
MC3-MML (mediolateral midshaft of the metacarpus) nan mm 4 4 - - 13 14 16 1 Wimberly,…
MC4-DW (distal width of the metacarpus) nan mm 4 4 - - 20 22 24 1 Wimberly,…
MC5-PW (proximal width of the metacarpus) nan mm 4 4 - - 22 23 24 1 Wimberly,…
MT1-UL (length of the metatarsus) nan mm 4 4 - - 161 165 171 4 Wimberly,…
MT2-MAP (anteroposterior midshaft of the metatarsus) nan mm 4 4 - - 14 15 17 2 Wimberly,…
MT3-MML (mediolateral midshaft of the metatarsus) nan mm 4 4 - - 12 13 14 1 Wimberly,…
MT4-DW (distal width of the metatarsus) nan mm 4 4 - - 21 22 24 1 Wimberly,…
MT5-PW (proximal width of the metatarsus) nan mm 4 4 - - 21 22 23 1 Wimberly,…
R1-UL (length of the radius) nan mm 4 4 - - 146 150 161 7 Wimberly,…
R2-PW (full proximal width of the radius) nan mm 4 4 - - 29 30 33 2 Wimberly,…
R3-NPW (width of humeral articular surface of the radius) nan mm 4 4 - - 26 28 29 1 Wimberly,…
R4-DW (distal width of the radius) nan mm 4 4 - - 26 27 28 1 Wimberly,…
S1-L (full length of the scapula) nan mm 4 4 - - 147 158 180 16 Wimberly,…
S2-GW (greatest cranio-caudal length of the scapula) nan mm 4 4 - - 77 87 101 10 Wimberly,…
S3-SW (shortest length of scapular neck of the scapula) nan mm 4 4 - - 15 17 21 2 Wimberly,…
S4-GH (anteroposterior glenoid fossa of the scapula) nan mm 4 4 - - 23 24 26 1 Wimberly,…
S5-GW (mediolateral glenoid fossa of the scapula) nan mm 4 4 - - 21 23 26 2 Wimberly,…
T1-L (full length of the tibia) nan mm 4 4 - - 207 214 230 11 Wimberly,…
T2-MCF (midshaft circumference of the tibia) nan mm 4 4 - - 50 54 59 4 Wimberly,…
T3-PW (proximal width of the tibia) nan mm 4 4 - - 42 44 47 2 Wimberly,…
T4-DW (distal width of the tibia) nan mm 4 4 - - 27 28 29 1 Wimberly,…
U1-UL (length of the ulna) nan mm 4 4 - - 189 196 211 10 Wimberly,…
U2-OPL (olecranon process length of the ulna) nan mm 4 4 - - 38 41 45 3 Wimberly,…
average ungulate dietary grass fraction (proportional) nan unitless - - - - - 1 - - Abraham, …
femur circumference nan mm - - - - - 57 - - Nelson, A…
femur diameter nan mm - - - - - 17 - - Nelson, A…
humerus circumference nan mm - - - - - 57 - - Nelson, A…
humerus diameter nan mm - - - - - 18 - - Nelson, A…

b. other Measurements. Source Measurements which are not listed on or mapped with the Standard Traits..


Table 5. List of Data Sources for Cervus nippon.
Taxon Reference Match Status
Cervus nippon Mysterud,Atle, 2000, The Relationship between Ecological Segregation and Sexual Body Size Dimorphism in Large Herbivores, Oecologia 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus nippon Clauss,M., 2010, Convergence in the macroscopic anatomy of the reticulum in wild ruminant species of different feeding types and a new resulting hypothesis on reticular function, Journal of zoology 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus nippon Gordon,IJ, 1988, Incisor arcade structure and diet selection in ruminants, Functional Ecology 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus nippon Loison,A., 1999, What factors shape sexual size dimorphism in ungulates?, Evolutionary Ecology Research 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus nippon Clauss,M., 2002, Faecal particle size distribution in captive wild ruminants: an approach to the browser/grazer dichotomy from the other end, Oecologia 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus nippon Mendoza,M., 2008, Hypsodonty in ungulates: an adaptation for grass consumption or for foraging in open habitat?, Journal of zoology 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus nippon Nowak,R. M., 1991, Walker's mammals of the world, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus nippon Grzimek,B., 2003, Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia: Mammals I-V, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus nippon Smith,A. T., 2010, A guide to the mammals of China, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus nippon Nowak,R. M., 1991, Walker's mammals of the world, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus nippon Quibod, M.N.R.M., Gélin, U., van Langevelde, F. and Tomlinson, K.W., 2023. Diet-specific responses of skull traits to aridity gradients in bovids and cervids. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, p.zlad068. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus nippon Engelman, R.K., 2022. Occipital condyle width (OCW) is a highly accurate predictor of body mass in therian mammals. BMC biology, 20(1), p.37. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus nippon Wimberly, A.N., 2023. Predicting body mass in Ruminantia using postcranial measurements. Journal of Morphology, 284(10), p.e21636. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus nippon Abraham, J.O., Upham, N.S., Damian-Serrano, A. and Jesmer, B.R., 2022. Evolutionary causes and consequences of ungulate migration. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 6(7), pp.998-1006. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus nippon Lundgren, E.J., Schowanek, S.D., Rowan, J., Middleton, O., Pedersen, R.Ø., Wallach, A.D., Ramp, D., Davis, M., Sandom, C.J. and Svenning, J.C., 2021. Functional traits of the world’s late Quaternary large-bodied avian and mammalian herbivores. Scientific data, 8(1), p.17. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus nippon Nelson, A., Engelman, R.K. and Croft, D.A., 2023. How to weigh a fossil mammal? South American notoungulates as a case study for estimating body mass in extinct clades. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 30(3), pp.773-809. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus nippon Freudenthal, M. and Martín-Suárez, E., 2013. Estimating body mass of fossil rodents. Scripta Geologica, 145, pp.1-513. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted

Citation for this page: [The MammalBase community 2024. / CC BY 4.0. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7462864 Cervus nippon , Accessed 22nd July 2024 at https://mammalbase.net/me/15711]