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MammalBase - Accepted taxon: Cervus elaphus

Accepted taxon: Cervus elaphus


Accepted taxon: Cervus elaphus
Taxon: Cervus elaphus
Rank: Species
Higher Classification: ARTIODACTYLA | Cervidae | Cervinae | Cervus
Reference: Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), JHU Press, 2005.

Fig.1 - Ternary plot of the proximate analysis for the Cervus elaphus diet.
CF (Crude Fibre) 27, ASH (Ash contents) 8, NFE (Nitrogen-Free-Extract) 51, CP (Crude Protein) 11, EE (Ether Extract) 4. See details for the calculations in Lintulaakso, K., Tatti, N. and Žliobaitė, I., 2022. Quantifying mammalian diets. Mammalian Biology, pp.1-15. [DOI]


Table 1. List of Diet Items for Cervus elaphus.
TSN Complete name Part Ratio a. Reference(s)
Poaceae STEM 17.78 Damuth, J…
Magnoliopsida SHOOT 16.31 Damuth, J…
Magnoliopsida STEM 11.26 Damuth, J…
Salix STEM 5.86 Grzimek,B…
Magnoliopsida LEAF 5.72 Grzimek,B…
Populus X berolinensis BARK 3.97 Grzimek,B…
Ascomycota SHOOT 3.66 Grzimek,B…
Sorbus LEAF 3.17 Grzimek,B…
Vaccinium vitis-idaea FRUIT 2.81 Grzimek,B…
Magnoliopsida BARK 2.78 Damuth, J…
Abies STEM 2.71 Grzimek,B…
Quercus LEAF 2.38 Grzimek,B…
Pteridophyta LEAF 2.25 Grzimek,B…
Bryophyta SHOOT 2.22 Smith,A. …
Tsuga heterophylla STEM 1.96 Grzimek,B…
Thuja plicata STEM 1.72 Grzimek,B…
Mahonia repens FRUIT 1.59 Grzimek,B…
Physocarpus capitatus STEM 1.47 Grzimek,B…
Cyperaceae LEAF 1.39 Grzimek,B…
Sambucus racemosa FRUIT 1.35 Grzimek,B…
Larix LEAF 1.20 Grzimek,B…
Larix STEM 1.09 Grzimek,B…
Abies LEAF 0.98 Grzimek,B…
Gaultheria shallon STEM 0.98 Grzimek,B…
Rubus FRUIT 0.79 Grzimek,B…
Cornus FRUIT 0.61 Grzimek,B…
Rubus spectabilis FRUIT 0.49 Grzimek,B…
Equisetophyta SHOOT 0.44 Grzimek,B…
Linnaea SHOOT 0.37 Grzimek,B…
Symplocarpus foetidus LEAF 0.25 Grzimek,B…
Magnoliopsida FRUIT 0.22 Grzimek,B…
Mycelis muralis SHOOT 0.12 Grzimek,B…
Fungi SHOOT 0.11 Grzimek,B…

a. Standardized values. See details for the calculations in Lintulaakso, K., Tatti, N. and Žliobaitė, I., 2022. Quantifying mammalian diets. Mammalian Biology, pp.1-15. [DOI]


Table 2. List of Standard Traits for Cervus elaphus.
Trait Selected Value All Value(s) Reference(s)
Dietary category: Eisenberg 1981 Herbivore-Mixed feeder Herbivore-Grazer,Herbivore-Mixed feeder A. Myster…
Dietary category: Miljutin 2009 Herbivore Herbivore A. Myster…

Table 3. List of Standard Measurements for Cervus elaphus.
Measurement Location Unit n Total n Unknown n Female n Male Min Mean Max SD Reference(s)
Body Mass (BM) nan g - - - - - 131,250 - - Lundgren,…
Body Mass (BM) nan g 8 - - 8 - 352,441.27 - - Nelson, A…
Body Mass (BM) nan g - - - - - 172,170 - - Wimberly,…
Body Mass (BM) nan g 4 - 4 - - 274,876.98 - - Nelson, A…
Body Mass (BM) nan g - - - - 58,000 - 500,000 - Freudenth…
Head-Body Length (HBL) nan mm 8 - - 8 - 2,286 - - Nelson, A…
Head-Body Length (HBL) nan mm 4 - 4 - - 2,128.52 - - Nelson, A…

Table 4. List of other Measurements b. for Cervus elaphus.
Measurement Location Unit n Total n Unknown n Female n Male Min Mean Max SD Reference(s)
Length of the Masseteric Fossa cm 10 10 - - - 14 - - Quibod, M…
Muzzle Width cm 10 10 - - - 5 - - Quibod, M…
Total Length of the Skull cm 10 10 - - - 36 - - Quibod, M…
A1-MLL (maximum lateral length of the astragalus) nan mm 4 4 - - 50 64 75 12 Wimberly,…
A2-MML (maximum medial length of the astragalus) nan mm 4 4 - - 47 59 69 11 Wimberly,…
A3-MIN (minimal length of the astragalus) nan mm 4 4 - - 40 51 59 10 Wimberly,…
A4-WAT (width at tarsus of the astragalus) nan mm 4 4 - - 33 41 47 7 Wimberly,…
A5-WAF (width at trochlea of the astragalus) nan mm 4 4 - - 28 37 43 7 Wimberly,…
C1-UL (greatest length of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 107 133 151 22 Wimberly,…
C2-TL (length of body of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 69 88 99 14 Wimberly,…
C3-MBH (midbody height of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 28 36 43 6 Wimberly,…
C4-MBTV (midbody transverse width of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 13 18 24 4 Wimberly,…
C5-FFL (fibular facet length of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 21 26 31 4 Wimberly,…
C6-CNFL (cubonavicular facet length of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 28 34 39 5 Wimberly,…
C7-HSF (height of sustentacular facet of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 20 25 30 4 Wimberly,…
C8-HST (height of sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus) nan mm 4 4 - - 32 40 46 6 Wimberly,…
F1-UL (full length of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 295 369 422 57 Wimberly,…
F2-FL (functional length of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 276 349 402 56 Wimberly,…
F3-MCF (midshaft circumference of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 90 114 144 24 Wimberly,…
F4-PW (proximal width of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 78 103 122 21 Wimberly,…
F5-MLHW (mediolateral femoral head of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 45 60 73 13 Wimberly,…
F6-APHW (anteroposterior femoral head of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 34 42 50 8 Wimberly,…
F7-DW (distal width of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 64 83 95 14 Wimberly,…
F8-MPL (medial condyle and patellar lip of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 85 107 128 21 Wimberly,…
F9-LPL (lateral condyle and patellar lip of the femur) nan mm 4 4 - - 71 91 109 17 Wimberly,…
H1-UL (full length of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 245 310 357 53 Wimberly,…
H2-FL (functional length of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 223 278 317 44 Wimberly,…
H3-MCF (midshaft circumference of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 93 121 152 28 Wimberly,…
H4-MTH (largest medial height of trochlea of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 36 45 53 8 Wimberly,…
H5-MidTH (smallest height of trochlea of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 27 35 41 7 Wimberly,…
H6-LTH (largest lateral height of trochlea of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 31 40 46 7 Wimberly,…
H7-PW (proximal width of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 64 87 109 21 Wimberly,…
H8-MLH (mediolateral humeral head width of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 55 67 79 12 Wimberly,…
H9-DW (distal width of the humerus) nan mm 4 4 - - 53 68 81 14 Wimberly,…
MC1-UL (length of the metacarpus) nan mm 4 4 - - 229 269 295 33 Wimberly,…
MC2-MAP (anteroposterior midshaft of the metacarpus) nan mm 4 4 - - 21 27 34 6 Wimberly,…
MC3-MML (mediolateral midshaft of the metacarpus) nan mm 4 4 - - 20 29 36 7 Wimberly,…
MC4-DW (distal width of the metacarpus) nan mm 4 4 - - 37 48 58 10 Wimberly,…
MC5-PW (proximal width of the metacarpus) nan mm 4 4 - - 38 47 57 9 Wimberly,…
MT1-UL (length of the metatarsus) nan mm 4 4 - - 264 293 322 29 Wimberly,…
MT2-MAP (anteroposterior midshaft of the metatarsus) nan mm 4 4 - - 24 30 35 5 Wimberly,…
MT3-MML (mediolateral midshaft of the metatarsus) nan mm 4 4 - - 21 28 35 6 Wimberly,…
MT4-DW (distal width of the metatarsus) nan mm 4 4 - - 38 49 58 10 Wimberly,…
MT5-PW (proximal width of the metatarsus) nan mm 4 4 - - 33 44 57 10 Wimberly,…
R1-UL (length of the radius) nan mm 4 4 - - 247 305 338 43 Wimberly,…
R2-PW (full proximal width of the radius) nan mm 4 4 - - 53 66 78 12 Wimberly,…
R3-NPW (width of humeral articular surface of the radius) nan mm 4 4 - - 48 61 71 12 Wimberly,…
R4-DW (distal width of the radius) nan mm 4 4 - - 46 62 75 13 Wimberly,…
S1-L (full length of the scapula) nan mm 4 4 - - 252 335 409 73 Wimberly,…
S2-GW (greatest cranio-caudal length of the scapula) nan mm 4 4 - - 143 196 251 46 Wimberly,…
S3-SW (shortest length of scapular neck of the scapula) nan mm 4 4 - - 29 40 51 9 Wimberly,…
S4-GH (anteroposterior glenoid fossa of the scapula) nan mm 4 4 - - 41 52 61 10 Wimberly,…
S5-GW (mediolateral glenoid fossa of the scapula) nan mm 4 4 - - 38 49 60 11 Wimberly,…
T1-L (full length of the tibia) nan mm 4 4 - - 311 397 467 65 Wimberly,…
T2-MCF (midshaft circumference of the tibia) nan mm 4 4 - - 85 112 139 26 Wimberly,…
T3-PW (proximal width of the tibia) nan mm 4 4 - - 71 89 105 16 Wimberly,…
T4-DW (distal width of the tibia) nan mm 4 4 - - 45 59 70 13 Wimberly,…
U1-UL (length of the ulna) nan mm 4 4 - - 313 393 445 61 Wimberly,…
U2-OPL (olecranon process length of the ulna) nan mm 4 4 - - 63 83 102 18 Wimberly,…
average ungulate dietary grass fraction (proportional) nan unitless - - - - - 0 - - Abraham, …
BMR (kJ/h) nan kJ/h - - - - - 326 - - McNab, B.…
femur circumference nan mm - - - - - 99 - - Nelson, A…
femur diameter nan mm - - - - - 32 - - Nelson, A…
humerus circumference nan mm - - - - - 100 - - Nelson, A…
humerus diameter nan mm - - - - - 35 - - Nelson, A…
BMR,mlO2/h nan mlO2/h 2 2 - - - 16,420 - - Genoud, M…

b. other Measurements. Source Measurements which are not listed on or mapped with the Standard Traits..


Table 5. List of Data Sources for Cervus elaphus.
Taxon Reference Match Status
Cervus elaphus Mysterud,Atle, 2000, The Relationship between Ecological Segregation and Sexual Body Size Dimorphism in Large Herbivores, Oecologia 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus elaphus Clauss,M., 2010, Convergence in the macroscopic anatomy of the reticulum in wild ruminant species of different feeding types and a new resulting hypothesis on reticular function, Journal of zoology 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus elaphus Gordon,IJ, 1988, Incisor arcade structure and diet selection in ruminants, Functional Ecology 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus elaphus Loison,A., 1999, What factors shape sexual size dimorphism in ungulates?, Evolutionary Ecology Research 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus elaphus Clauss,M., 2002, Faecal particle size distribution in captive wild ruminants: an approach to the browser/grazer dichotomy from the other end, Oecologia 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus elaphus McNab,B. K., 1986, The influence of food habits on the energetics of eutherian mammals, Ecological Monographs 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus elaphus Turner,J., 2004, Mammals of Australia, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus elaphus Damuth, J. 2010. ABSOLUT 6 a mammalian database compiled by the national center for ecological analysis and synthesis (NCEAS ) workshop on mammalian communities. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus elaphus Nowak,R. M., 1991, Walker's mammals of the world, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus elaphus Grzimek,B., 2003, Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia: Mammals I-V, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus elaphus Smith,A. T., 2010, A guide to the mammals of China, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus elaphus Nowak,R. M., 1991, Walker's mammals of the world, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus elaphus Quibod, M.N.R.M., Gélin, U., van Langevelde, F. and Tomlinson, K.W., 2023. Diet-specific responses of skull traits to aridity gradients in bovids and cervids. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, p.zlad068. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus elaphus Wimberly, A.N., 2023. Predicting body mass in Ruminantia using postcranial measurements. Journal of Morphology, 284(10), p.e21636. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus elaphus Abraham, J.O., Upham, N.S., Damian-Serrano, A. and Jesmer, B.R., 2022. Evolutionary causes and consequences of ungulate migration. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 6(7), pp.998-1006. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus elaphus Lundgren, E.J., Schowanek, S.D., Rowan, J., Middleton, O., Pedersen, R.Ø., Wallach, A.D., Ramp, D., Davis, M., Sandom, C.J. and Svenning, J.C., 2021. Functional traits of the world’s late Quaternary large-bodied avian and mammalian herbivores. Scientific data, 8(1), p.17. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus elaphus McNab, B.K., 2008. An analysis of the factors that influence the level and scaling of mammalian BMR. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 151(1), pp.5-28. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus elaphus Nelson, A., Engelman, R.K. and Croft, D.A., 2023. How to weigh a fossil mammal? South American notoungulates as a case study for estimating body mass in extinct clades. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 30(3), pp.773-809. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus elaphus Genoud, M., Isler, K. and Martin, R.D., 2018. Comparative analyses of basal rate of metabolism in mammals: data selection does matter. Biological Reviews, 93(1), pp.404-438. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Cervus elaphus Freudenthal, M. and Martín-Suárez, E., 2013. Estimating body mass of fossil rodents. Scripta Geologica, 145, pp.1-513. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted

Citation for this page: [The MammalBase community 2024. / CC BY 4.0. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7462864 Cervus elaphus , Accessed 22nd July 2024 at https://mammalbase.net/me/15692]