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MammalBase - Accepted taxon: Axis axis

Accepted taxon: Axis axis


Accepted taxon: Axis axis
Taxon: Axis axis
Rank: Species
Higher Classification: ARTIODACTYLA | Cervidae | Cervinae | Axis
Reference: Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), JHU Press, 2005.

Fig.1 - Ternary plot of the proximate analysis for the Axis axis diet.
CF (Crude Fibre) 24, ASH (Ash contents) 11, NFE (Nitrogen-Free-Extract) 51, CP (Crude Protein) 12, EE (Ether Extract) 3. See details for the calculations in Lintulaakso, K., Tatti, N. and Žliobaitė, I., 2022. Quantifying mammalian diets. Mammalian Biology, pp.1-15. [DOI]


Table 1. List of Diet Items for Axis axis.
TSN Complete name Part Ratio a. Reference(s)
Magnoliopsida SHOOT 27.27 Grzimek,B…
Poaceae STEM 14.55 Randel II…
Zanthoxylum FRUIT 8.73 Randel II…
Magnoliopsida LEAF 7.27 Grzimek,B…
Aegle marmelos FRUIT 6.55 Randel II…
Malvaceae LEAF 5.45 Randel II…
Malvaceae SHOOT 4.68 Randel II…
Ficus glomerata FRUIT 4.36 Randel II…
Helicteres LEAF 3.90 Randel II…
Acacia FRUIT 3.64 Randel II…
Zanthoxylum LEAF 3.12 Randel II…
Rutaceae FRUIT 2.34 Randel II…
Randia FRUIT 2.18 Randel II…
Ziziphus FRUIT 1.82 Randel II…
Vertebrata BONES 1.82 Randel II…
Rubiaceae FRUIT 1.56 Randel II…
Indigofera SHOOT 0.78 Randel II…

a. Standardized values. See details for the calculations in Lintulaakso, K., Tatti, N. and Žliobaitė, I., 2022. Quantifying mammalian diets. Mammalian Biology, pp.1-15. [DOI]


Table 2. List of Standard Traits for Axis axis.
Trait Selected Value All Value(s) Reference(s)
Dietary category: Eisenberg 1981 Herbivore-Mixed feeder Herbivore-Grazer,Herbivore-Mixed feeder A. Myster…
Dietary category: Miljutin 2009 Herbivore Herbivore A. Myster…

Table 3. List of Standard Measurements for Axis axis.
Measurement Location Unit n Total n Unknown n Female n Male Min Mean Max SD Reference(s)
Body Mass (BM) nan g 3 - 3 - - 49,577.65 - - Nelson, A…
Body Mass (BM) nan g 13 - - 13 - 84,504.26 - - Nelson, A…
Body Mass (BM) nan g 3 - 3 - - 56,000 - - Nelson, A…
Body Mass (BM) nan g 16 - 16 - - 48,897.26 - - Nelson, A…
Body Mass (BM) nan g - - - - - 58,350 - - Wimberly,…
Body Mass (BM) nan g - - - - 27,000 - 113,000 - Freudenth…
Body Mass (BM) nan g 5 - - 5 - 84,000 - - Nelson, A…
Head-Body Length (HBL) nan mm 3 - 3 - - 1,106 - - Nelson, A…
Head-Body Length (HBL) nan mm 13 - - 13 - 1,511.3 - - Nelson, A…
Head-Body Length (HBL) nan mm 3 - 3 - - 1,360 - - Nelson, A…
Head-Body Length (HBL) nan mm 16 - 16 - - 1,323.34 - - Nelson, A…
Head-Body Length (HBL) nan mm 5 - - 5 - 1,490 - - Nelson, A…

Table 4. List of other Measurements b. for Axis axis.
Measurement Location Unit n Total n Unknown n Female n Male Min Mean Max SD Reference(s)
Length of the Masseteric Fossa cm 6 6 - - - 12 - - Quibod, M…
Muzzle Width cm 6 6 - - - 3 - - Quibod, M…
Total Length of the Skull cm 6 6 - - - 23 - - Quibod, M…
A1-MLL (maximum lateral length of the astragalus) nan mm 2 - - 2 36 37 39 2 Wimberly,…
A2-MML (maximum medial length of the astragalus) nan mm 2 - - 2 33 34 35 2 Wimberly,…
A3-MIN (minimal length of the astragalus) nan mm 2 - - 2 29 30 31 1 Wimberly,…
A4-WAT (width at tarsus of the astragalus) nan mm 2 - - 2 24 24 25 1 Wimberly,…
A5-WAF (width at trochlea of the astragalus) nan mm 2 - - 2 21 22 22 1 Wimberly,…
C1-UL (greatest length of the calcaneus) nan mm 2 - - 2 80 82 83 2 Wimberly,…
C2-TL (length of body of the calcaneus) nan mm 2 - - 2 53 54 55 2 Wimberly,…
C3-MBH (midbody height of the calcaneus) nan mm 2 - - 2 20 21 21 1 Wimberly,…
C4-MBTV (midbody transverse width of the calcaneus) nan mm 2 - - 2 11 11 11 0 Wimberly,…
C5-FFL (fibular facet length of the calcaneus) nan mm 2 - - 2 15 16 16 1 Wimberly,…
C6-CNFL (cubonavicular facet length of the calcaneus) nan mm 2 - - 2 20 20 21 1 Wimberly,…
C7-HSF (height of sustentacular facet of the calcaneus) nan mm 2 - - 2 15 16 17 2 Wimberly,…
C8-HST (height of sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus) nan mm 2 - - 2 25 25 25 0 Wimberly,…
F1-UL (full length of the femur) nan mm 2 - - 2 237 246 255 13 Wimberly,…
F2-FL (functional length of the femur) nan mm 2 - - 2 221 230 240 13 Wimberly,…
F3-MCF (midshaft circumference of the femur) nan mm 2 - - 2 71 75 78 5 Wimberly,…
F4-PW (proximal width of the femur) nan mm 2 - - 2 61 62 63 2 Wimberly,…
F5-MLHW (mediolateral femoral head of the femur) nan mm 2 - - 2 34 35 36 2 Wimberly,…
F6-APHW (anteroposterior femoral head of the femur) nan mm 2 - - 2 24 25 26 1 Wimberly,…
F7-DW (distal width of the femur) nan mm 2 - - 2 47 50 53 4 Wimberly,…
F8-MPL (medial condyle and patellar lip of the femur) nan mm 2 - - 2 65 67 69 3 Wimberly,…
F9-LPL (lateral condyle and patellar lip of the femur) nan mm 2 - - 2 54 56 58 3 Wimberly,…
H1-UL (full length of the humerus) nan mm 2 - - 2 183 192 201 13 Wimberly,…
H2-FL (functional length of the humerus) nan mm 2 - - 2 169 174 179 7 Wimberly,…
H3-MCF (midshaft circumference of the humerus) nan mm 2 - - 2 73 76 79 4 Wimberly,…
H4-MTH (largest medial height of trochlea of the humerus) nan mm 2 - - 2 26 26 27 1 Wimberly,…
H5-MidTH (smallest height of trochlea of the humerus) nan mm 2 - - 2 19 19 19 0 Wimberly,…
H6-LTH (largest lateral height of trochlea of the humerus) nan mm 2 - - 2 22 22 23 0 Wimberly,…
H7-PW (proximal width of the humerus) nan mm 2 - - 2 51 53 54 2 Wimberly,…
H8-MLH (mediolateral humeral head width of the humerus) nan mm 2 - - 2 39 40 41 1 Wimberly,…
H9-DW (distal width of the humerus) nan mm 2 - - 2 42 44 46 2 Wimberly,…
MC1-UL (length of the metacarpus) nan mm 2 - - 2 164 170 177 9 Wimberly,…
MC2-MAP (anteroposterior midshaft of the metacarpus) nan mm 2 - - 2 15 16 16 1 Wimberly,…
MC3-MML (mediolateral midshaft of the metacarpus) nan mm 2 - - 2 18 18 18 0 Wimberly,…
MC4-DW (distal width of the metacarpus) nan mm 2 - - 2 27 28 29 1 Wimberly,…
MC5-PW (proximal width of the metacarpus) nan mm 2 - - 2 29 29 30 1 Wimberly,…
MT1-UL (length of the metatarsus) nan mm 2 - - 2 183 187 191 6 Wimberly,…
MT2-MAP (anteroposterior midshaft of the metatarsus) nan mm 2 - - 2 19 20 20 1 Wimberly,…
MT3-MML (mediolateral midshaft of the metatarsus) nan mm 2 - - 2 17 17 17 0 Wimberly,…
MT4-DW (distal width of the metatarsus) nan mm 2 - - 2 28 29 30 2 Wimberly,…
MT5-PW (proximal width of the metatarsus) nan mm 2 - - 2 27 27 27 0 Wimberly,…
R1-UL (length of the radius) nan mm 2 - - 2 174 182 190 12 Wimberly,…
R2-PW (full proximal width of the radius) nan mm 2 - - 2 37 39 40 2 Wimberly,…
R3-NPW (width of humeral articular surface of the radius) nan mm 2 - - 2 35 35 35 0 Wimberly,…
R4-DW (distal width of the radius) nan mm 2 - - 2 35 36 38 2 Wimberly,…
S1-L (full length of the scapula) nan mm 2 - - 2 198 209 220 16 Wimberly,…
S2-GW (greatest cranio-caudal length of the scapula) nan mm 2 - - 2 110 121 131 15 Wimberly,…
S3-SW (shortest length of scapular neck of the scapula) nan mm 2 - - 2 24 25 26 1 Wimberly,…
S4-GH (anteroposterior glenoid fossa of the scapula) nan mm 2 - - 2 31 32 33 1 Wimberly,…
S5-GW (mediolateral glenoid fossa of the scapula) nan mm 2 - - 2 30 32 33 2 Wimberly,…
T1-L (full length of the tibia) nan mm 2 - - 2 243 257 270 19 Wimberly,…
T2-MCF (midshaft circumference of the tibia) nan mm 2 - - 2 68 72 75 5 Wimberly,…
T3-PW (proximal width of the tibia) nan mm 2 - - 2 52 55 57 4 Wimberly,…
T4-DW (distal width of the tibia) nan mm 2 - - 2 36 37 38 2 Wimberly,…
U1-UL (length of the ulna) nan mm 2 - - 2 227 236 245 13 Wimberly,…
U2-OPL (olecranon process length of the ulna) nan mm 2 - - 2 46 49 53 5 Wimberly,…
average ungulate dietary grass fraction (proportional) nan unitless - - - - - 1 - - Abraham, …
femur circumference nan mm - - - - - 60 - - Nelson, A…
humerus circumference nan mm - - - - - 57 - - Nelson, A…
neck length nan mm - - - - - 329 - - Nelson, A…

b. other Measurements. Source Measurements which are not listed on or mapped with the Standard Traits..


Table 5. List of Data Sources for Axis axis.
Taxon Reference Match Status
Axis axis Mysterud,Atle, 2000, The Relationship between Ecological Segregation and Sexual Body Size Dimorphism in Large Herbivores, Oecologia 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Axis axis Clauss,M., 2002, Faecal particle size distribution in captive wild ruminants: an approach to the browser/grazer dichotomy from the other end, Oecologia 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Axis axis Clauss,M., 2010, Convergence in the macroscopic anatomy of the reticulum in wild ruminant species of different feeding types and a new resulting hypothesis on reticular function, Journal of zoology 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Axis axis Gordon,IJ, 1988, Incisor arcade structure and diet selection in ruminants, Functional Ecology 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Axis axis Loison,A., 1999, What factors shape sexual size dimorphism in ungulates?, Evolutionary Ecology Research 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Axis axis Mendoza,M., 2008, Hypsodonty in ungulates: an adaptation for grass consumption or for foraging in open habitat?, Journal of zoology 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Axis axis Turner,J., 2004, Mammals of Australia, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Axis axis Grzimek,B., 2003, Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia: Mammals I-V, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Axis axis Randel III, C.J. and Tomeček, J.M., 2021. Axis axis (Artiodactyla: Cervidae). Mammalian Species, 53(1004), pp.51-64. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Axis axis Quibod, M.N.R.M., Gélin, U., van Langevelde, F. and Tomlinson, K.W., 2023. Diet-specific responses of skull traits to aridity gradients in bovids and cervids. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, p.zlad068. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Axis axis Wimberly, A.N., 2023. Predicting body mass in Ruminantia using postcranial measurements. Journal of Morphology, 284(10), p.e21636. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Axis axis Abraham, J.O., Upham, N.S., Damian-Serrano, A. and Jesmer, B.R., 2022. Evolutionary causes and consequences of ungulate migration. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 6(7), pp.998-1006. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Axis axis Lundgren, E.J., Schowanek, S.D., Rowan, J., Middleton, O., Pedersen, R.Ø., Wallach, A.D., Ramp, D., Davis, M., Sandom, C.J. and Svenning, J.C., 2021. Functional traits of the world’s late Quaternary large-bodied avian and mammalian herbivores. Scientific data, 8(1), p.17. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Axis axis Nelson, A., Engelman, R.K. and Croft, D.A., 2023. How to weigh a fossil mammal? South American notoungulates as a case study for estimating body mass in extinct clades. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 30(3), pp.773-809. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Axis axis Freudenthal, M. and Martín-Suárez, E., 2013. Estimating body mass of fossil rodents. Scripta Geologica, 145, pp.1-513. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted

Citation for this page: [The MammalBase community 2024. / CC BY 4.0. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7462864 Axis axis , Accessed 22nd July 2024 at https://mammalbase.net/me/15686]