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MammalBase - Accepted taxon: Alces alces

Accepted taxon: Alces alces


Accepted taxon: Alces alces
Taxon: Alces alces
Rank: Species
Higher Classification: ARTIODACTYLA | Cervidae | Capreolinae | Alces
Reference: Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), JHU Press, 2005.

Fig.1 - Ternary plot of the proximate analysis for the Alces alces diet.
CF (Crude Fibre) 23, ASH (Ash contents) 7, NFE (Nitrogen-Free-Extract) 45, CP (Crude Protein) 8, EE (Ether Extract) 3. See details for the calculations in Lintulaakso, K., Tatti, N. and Žliobaitė, I., 2022. Quantifying mammalian diets. Mammalian Biology, pp.1-15. [DOI]


Table 1. List of Diet Items for Alces alces.
TSN Complete name Part Ratio a. Reference(s)
Magnoliopsida STEM 29.88 Damuth, J…
Magnoliopsida LEAF 11.21 Grzimek,B…
Magnoliopsida BARK 10.79 Damuth, J…
Magnoliopsida SHOOT 8.89 Damuth, J…
Vaccinium STEM 6.35 Smith,A. …
Salix STEM 4.76 Grzimek,B…
Populus X berolinensis BARK 4.08 Grzimek,B…
Magnoliopsida ROOT 3.81 Nowak,R. …
Populus LEAF 3.40 Grzimek,B…
Calluna SHOOT 3.17 Smith,A. …
Sorbus LEAF 2.72 Grzimek,B…
Fraxinus LEAF 2.08 Smith,A. …
Vaccinium FRUIT 2.04 Grzimek,B…
Eugenia monticola FRUIT 1.36 Grzimek,B…
Betula X alpestris LEAF 1.22 Smith,A. …
Salix bicolor LEAF 0.85 Smith,A. …
Rhamnus LEAF 0.68 Grzimek,B…
Poaceae STEM 0.63 Grzimek,B…
Trifolium SHOOT 0.61 Smith,A. …
Brassica napus var. napus SHOOT 0.49 Smith,A. …
Plantae SHOOT 0.48 Reid,F., …
Poaceae SEED 0.37 Smith,A. …
Nymphaeaceae ROOT 0.12 Smith,A. …

a. Standardized values. See details for the calculations in Lintulaakso, K., Tatti, N. and Žliobaitė, I., 2022. Quantifying mammalian diets. Mammalian Biology, pp.1-15. [DOI]


Table 2. List of Standard Traits for Alces alces.
Trait Selected Value All Value(s) Reference(s)
Dietary category: Eisenberg 1981 Herbivore-Browser Herbivore-Browser A. Myster…
Dietary category: Miljutin 2009 Herbivore Herbivore A. Myster…

Table 3. List of Standard Measurements for Alces alces.
Measurement Location Unit n Total n Unknown n Female n Male Min Mean Max SD Reference(s)
Body Mass (BM) nan g 1 1 - - - 272,155 - - Engelman,…
Body Mass (BM) nan g - - - - - 408,180 - - Wimberly,…
Body Mass (BM) nan g - - - - 190,000 - 825,000 - Freudenth…
Head-Body Length (HBL) nan mm - - - - - 2,629 - - Engelman,…
Occipital condyle width (OCW) nan mm 1 1 - - - 90.73 - - Engelman,…

Table 4. List of other Measurements b. for Alces alces.
Measurement Location Unit n Total n Unknown n Female n Male Min Mean Max SD Reference(s)
Length of the Masseteric Fossa cm 8 8 - - - 22 - - Quibod, M…
Muzzle Width cm 8 8 - - - 6 - - Quibod, M…
Total Length of the Skull cm 8 8 - - - 49 - - Quibod, M…
brainmass nan g - - - - - 436 - - Engelman,…
skull_length nan mm - - - - - 588 - - Engelman,…
A1-MLL (maximum lateral length of the astragalus) nan mm 6 6 - - 75 82 87 5 Wimberly,…
A2-MML (maximum medial length of the astragalus) nan mm 6 6 - - 72 76 80 3 Wimberly,…
A3-MIN (minimal length of the astragalus) nan mm 6 6 - - 59 64 68 3 Wimberly,…
A4-WAT (width at tarsus of the astragalus) nan mm 6 6 - - 47 51 53 2 Wimberly,…
A5-WAF (width at trochlea of the astragalus) nan mm 6 6 - - 44 47 50 2 Wimberly,…
C1-UL (greatest length of the calcaneus) nan mm 6 6 - - 145 159 170 10 Wimberly,…
C2-TL (length of body of the calcaneus) nan mm 6 6 - - 93 104 111 7 Wimberly,…
C3-MBH (midbody height of the calcaneus) nan mm 6 6 - - 39 44 48 3 Wimberly,…
C4-MBTV (midbody transverse width of the calcaneus) nan mm 6 6 - - 18 21 26 3 Wimberly,…
C5-FFL (fibular facet length of the calcaneus) nan mm 6 6 - - 31 34 35 2 Wimberly,…
C6-CNFL (cubonavicular facet length of the calcaneus) nan mm 6 6 - - 35 40 43 3 Wimberly,…
C7-HSF (height of sustentacular facet of the calcaneus) nan mm 6 6 - - 30 32 33 1 Wimberly,…
C8-HST (height of sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus) nan mm 6 6 - - 48 50 53 2 Wimberly,…
F1-UL (full length of the femur) nan mm 6 6 - - 408 446 476 25 Wimberly,…
F2-FL (functional length of the femur) nan mm 6 6 - - 384 423 451 24 Wimberly,…
F3-MCF (midshaft circumference of the femur) nan mm 6 6 - - 128 143 156 9 Wimberly,…
F4-PW (proximal width of the femur) nan mm 6 6 - - 109 123 133 8 Wimberly,…
F5-MLHW (mediolateral femoral head of the femur) nan mm 6 6 - - 57 61 68 4 Wimberly,…
F6-APHW (anteroposterior femoral head of the femur) nan mm 6 6 - - 48 51 55 3 Wimberly,…
F7-DW (distal width of the femur) nan mm 6 6 - - 91 106 119 10 Wimberly,…
F8-MPL (medial condyle and patellar lip of the femur) nan mm 6 6 - - 118 128 136 7 Wimberly,…
F9-LPL (lateral condyle and patellar lip of the femur) nan mm 6 6 - - 104 111 118 5 Wimberly,…
H1-UL (full length of the humerus) nan mm 6 6 - - 357 396 425 24 Wimberly,…
H2-FL (functional length of the humerus) nan mm 6 6 - - 332 367 394 21 Wimberly,…
H3-MCF (midshaft circumference of the humerus) nan mm 6 6 - - 140 154 173 11 Wimberly,…
H4-MTH (largest medial height of trochlea of the humerus) nan mm 6 6 - - 55 61 66 4 Wimberly,…
H5-MidTH (smallest height of trochlea of the humerus) nan mm 6 6 - - 42 46 52 4 Wimberly,…
H6-LTH (largest lateral height of trochlea of the humerus) nan mm 6 6 - - 46 52 58 4 Wimberly,…
H7-PW (proximal width of the humerus) nan mm 6 6 - - 93 107 118 8 Wimberly,…
H8-MLH (mediolateral humeral head width of the humerus) nan mm 6 6 - - 74 84 89 5 Wimberly,…
H9-DW (distal width of the humerus) nan mm 6 6 - - 77 86 93 6 Wimberly,…
MC1-UL (length of the metacarpus) nan mm 6 6 - - 303 325 350 17 Wimberly,…
MC2-MAP (anteroposterior midshaft of the metacarpus) nan mm 6 6 - - 28 31 34 2 Wimberly,…
MC3-MML (mediolateral midshaft of the metacarpus) nan mm 6 6 - - 34 37 41 3 Wimberly,…
MC4-DW (distal width of the metacarpus) nan mm 6 6 - - 57 64 69 4 Wimberly,…
MC5-PW (proximal width of the metacarpus) nan mm 6 6 - - 55 61 67 5 Wimberly,…
MT1-UL (length of the metatarsus) nan mm 6 6 - - 355 380 403 19 Wimberly,…
MT2-MAP (anteroposterior midshaft of the metatarsus) nan mm 6 6 - - 33 37 40 2 Wimberly,…
MT3-MML (mediolateral midshaft of the metatarsus) nan mm 6 6 - - 31 34 37 2 Wimberly,…
MT4-DW (distal width of the metatarsus) nan mm 6 6 - - 62 66 71 4 Wimberly,…
MT5-PW (proximal width of the metatarsus) nan mm 6 6 - - 50 56 63 5 Wimberly,…
R1-UL (length of the radius) nan mm 6 6 - - 370 401 423 21 Wimberly,…
R2-PW (full proximal width of the radius) nan mm 6 6 - - 73 80 87 5 Wimberly,…
R3-NPW (width of humeral articular surface of the radius) nan mm 6 6 - - 69 76 81 5 Wimberly,…
R4-DW (distal width of the radius) nan mm 6 6 - - 71 78 86 6 Wimberly,…
S1-L (full length of the scapula) nan mm 6 6 - - 388 430 461 28 Wimberly,…
S2-GW (greatest cranio-caudal length of the scapula) nan mm 6 6 - - 252 275 304 20 Wimberly,…
S3-SW (shortest length of scapular neck of the scapula) nan mm 6 6 - - 55 62 76 8 Wimberly,…
S4-GH (anteroposterior glenoid fossa of the scapula) nan mm 6 6 - - 56 65 73 6 Wimberly,…
S5-GW (mediolateral glenoid fossa of the scapula) nan mm 6 6 - - 54 58 62 3 Wimberly,…
T1-L (full length of the tibia) nan mm 6 6 - - 442 472 491 23 Wimberly,…
T2-MCF (midshaft circumference of the tibia) nan mm 6 6 - - 127 138 150 9 Wimberly,…
T3-PW (proximal width of the tibia) nan mm 6 6 - - 97 107 114 7 Wimberly,…
T4-DW (distal width of the tibia) nan mm 6 6 - - 64 71 73 4 Wimberly,…
U1-UL (length of the ulna) nan mm 6 6 - - 463 504 536 29 Wimberly,…
U2-OPL (olecranon process length of the ulna) nan mm 6 6 - - 80 95 107 10 Wimberly,…
average ungulate dietary grass fraction (proportional) nan unitless - - - - - 0 - - Abraham, …
femur circumference nan mm - - - - - 124 - - Nelson, A…
femur diameter nan mm - - - - - 40 - - Nelson, A…
humerus circumference nan mm - - - - - 127 - - Nelson, A…
humerus diameter nan mm - - - - - 44 - - Nelson, A…
neck length nan mm - - - - - 426 - - Nelson, A…

b. other Measurements. Source Measurements which are not listed on or mapped with the Standard Traits..


Table 5. List of Data Sources for Alces alces.
Taxon Reference Match Status
Alces alces Mysterud,Atle, 2000, The Relationship between Ecological Segregation and Sexual Body Size Dimorphism in Large Herbivores, Oecologia 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Alces alces Clauss,M., 2002, Faecal particle size distribution in captive wild ruminants: an approach to the browser/grazer dichotomy from the other end, Oecologia 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Alces alces Clauss,M., 2010, Convergence in the macroscopic anatomy of the reticulum in wild ruminant species of different feeding types and a new resulting hypothesis on reticular function, Journal of zoology 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Alces alces Gordon,IJ, 1988, Incisor arcade structure and diet selection in ruminants, Functional Ecology 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Alces alces Loison,A., 1999, What factors shape sexual size dimorphism in ungulates?, Evolutionary Ecology Research 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Alces alces Mendoza,M., 2008, Hypsodonty in ungulates: an adaptation for grass consumption or for foraging in open habitat?, Journal of zoology 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Alces alces Damuth, J. 2010. ABSOLUT 6 a mammalian database compiled by the national center for ecological analysis and synthesis (NCEAS ) workshop on mammalian communities. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Alces alces Reid,F., 2006, Peterson field guide to mammals of North America, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Alces alces Nowak,R. M., 1991, Walker's mammals of the world, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Alces alces Grzimek,B., 2003, Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia: Mammals I-V, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Alces alces Smith,A. T., 2010, A guide to the mammals of China, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Alces alces Nowak,R. M., 1991, Walker's mammals of the world, 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Alces alces Quibod, M.N.R.M., Gélin, U., van Langevelde, F. and Tomlinson, K.W., 2023. Diet-specific responses of skull traits to aridity gradients in bovids and cervids. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, p.zlad068. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Alces alces Engelman, R.K., 2022. Occipital condyle width (OCW) is a highly accurate predictor of body mass in therian mammals. BMC biology, 20(1), p.37. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Alces alces Wimberly, A.N., 2023. Predicting body mass in Ruminantia using postcranial measurements. Journal of Morphology, 284(10), p.e21636. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Alces alces Abraham, J.O., Upham, N.S., Damian-Serrano, A. and Jesmer, B.R., 2022. Evolutionary causes and consequences of ungulate migration. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 6(7), pp.998-1006. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Alces alces Lundgren, E.J., Schowanek, S.D., Rowan, J., Middleton, O., Pedersen, R.Ø., Wallach, A.D., Ramp, D., Davis, M., Sandom, C.J. and Svenning, J.C., 2021. Functional traits of the world’s late Quaternary large-bodied avian and mammalian herbivores. Scientific data, 8(1), p.17. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Alces alces Nelson, A., Engelman, R.K. and Croft, D.A., 2023. How to weigh a fossil mammal? South American notoungulates as a case study for estimating body mass in extinct clades. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 30(3), pp.773-809. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted
Alces alces Freudenthal, M. and Martín-Suárez, E., 2013. Estimating body mass of fossil rodents. Scripta Geologica, 145, pp.1-513. 1: Exact Taxon match Verified - Accepted

Citation for this page: [The MammalBase community 2024. / CC BY 4.0. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7462864 Alces alces , Accessed 22nd July 2024 at https://mammalbase.net/me/15559]